Further Reading 

Further studies on Weight loss

1. Aude, Y.W., Agatston, A.S., Lopez-Jimenez, F., Lieberman, E.H., Almon, M., Hansen, M., Rojas, G., Lamas, G.A., Hennekens, C.H. (2004). The national cholesterol education program diet vs a diet lower in carbohydrates and higher in protein and monounsaturated fat: a randomized trial. Archives of Internal Medicine, 164 (19):2141-2146. ABSTRACT

 2. Bueno, N.B., de Melo, I.S., de Oliveira, S.L., da Rocha Ataide, T. (2013). Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: ameta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Journal of Nutrition, 110 (7):1178-1187. Doi: 10.1017/S0007114513000548

 3. Gardner, C.D., Kiazand, A., Alhassan, S., Kim, S., Stafford, R.S., Balise, R.R., Kraemer, H.C., King, A.C. (2007). Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z weight loss study: a randomized trial. JAMA, 297 (9): 969-977. ABSTRACT

4. Mansoor, N., Vinknes, K.J., Veierød, M.B., Retterstøl, K. (2016). Effects of low-carbohydrate diets v. low-fat diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Journal of Nutrition, 115 (3): 466-479. Doi: 10.1017/S0007114515004699

5. Sackner-Bernstein, J., Kanter, D., Kaul, S. (2015). Dietary Intervention for Overweight and Obese Adults: Comparison of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets. A Meta-Analysis. PloS One, 10 (10): e0139817. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139817

6. Sacks, F.M., Bray, G.A., Carey, V.J., Smith, S.R., Ryan, D.H., Anton, S.D., McManus, K., Champagne, C.M., Bishop, L.M., Laranjo, N., Leboff, M.S., Rood, J.C. et al. (2009). Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. The New England Journal of Medicine, 360 : 859-873. Doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0804748

7. Flegal, K.M., Campbell, S.M., Johnson, C.L. (1994, July 20). Increasing Prevalence of Overweight among US Adults. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1960 to 1991. JAMA, 272 (3): 205-211. Doi: 10.1001/jama.1994.03520030047027.

8. Allam, A.H., Thompson, R.C., Wann, L.S., Miyamoto, M.I., Nur El-Din, Ael-H., El-Maksoud, G.A., Al-Tohamy Soliman, M., Badr, I., El-Rahman Amer, H.A., Sutherland, M.L., Sutherland, J.D., Thomas, G.S. (2011, April). Atherosclerosis in Ancient Egyptian Mummies: The Horus Study. JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging, 4 (4): 315-327. Doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2011.02.002.

9.Hibbeln, J.R. (1998, April 18). Fish consumption and major depression. The Lancet, 351 (9110): 1213. Doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)79168-


Further studies on Diabetes reversal

1. Ajala, O., English, P., Pinkney, J. (2013). Systematic review and meta-analysis of different dietary approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 97 (3): 505-516. Doi: 10.3945/ajcn.112.042457

2. Feinman et al. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: Critical review and evidence base. Nutrition 2015;31:1-13

3. Maekawa, S., Kawahara, T., Nomura, R., Murase, T., Ann, Y., Oeholm, M., Harada, M. (2014). Retrospective Study on the Efficacy of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet for Impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, 7 : 195-201. Doi: 10.2147/DMSO.S62681

4. Saslow, L.R., Daubenmier, J.J., Moskowitz, J.T., Kim, S., Murphy, E.J., Phinney, S.D., Ploutz-Snyder, R., Goldman, V., Cox, R.M., Mason, A.E., Moran, P., Hecht, F.M., (2017). Twelve-month outcomes of a randomized trial of a moderate carbohydrate versus very low-carbohydrate diet in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes. Nutrition & Diabetes, 7: 304. Doi: 10.1038/s41387-017-0006-9

5. Westman, E.C., Yancy, W.S., Mavropoulos, J.C., Marquart, M., McDuffie, J.R. (2008). The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutrition & Metabolism, 5 : 36. Doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-5-36

6. Yancy, W.S., Foy, M., Chalecki, A.M., Vernon, M.C., Westman, E.C. (2005). A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet to treat type 2 diabetes. Nutrition & Metabolism, 2 :34. Doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-2-34


Further studies on Metabolic Disease (pre diabetes)

1. Brinkworth, G.D., Noakes, M., Buckley, J.D., Keogh, J.B., Clifton, P.M. (2009). Long-term effects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight loss diet compared with an isocaloric low-fat diet after 12 mo. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90 (1): 23-32. Doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.27326

2. Hickey, J.T., Hickey, L., Yancy, W.S., Hepburn, J., Westman, E.C. (2003). Clinical use of a carbohydrate-restricted diet to treat the dyslipidemia of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 1 (3): 227-232. Doi: 10.1089/154041903322716705

3. Jonasson, L., Guldbrand, H., Lundberg, A.K., Nystrom, F.H. (2014). Advice to follow a low-carbohydrate diet has a favourable impact on low-grade inflammation in type 2 diabetes compared with advice to follow a low-fat diet. Annals of Medicine, 46 (3): 182-187. Doi: 10.3109/07853890.2014.894286

4. Mavropoulos, J.C., Yancy, W.S., Hepburn, J., Westman, E.C. (2005). The effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet on the polycystic ovary syndrome: a pilot study. Nutrition & Metabolism, 2 : 35. Doi: 10.1186/1743-7075-2-35

5. Noakes, T.D., Windt, J. (2017). Evidence that supports the prescription of low-carbohydrate high-fat diets: a narrative review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 51(2): 133-139. Doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2016-096491

6. Yancy, W.S., Westman, E.C., McDuffie, J.R. (2010). A Randomized Trial of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs Orlistat Plus a Low-Fat Diet for Weight Loss. JAMA Internal Medicine, 170 (2): 136-145. Doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2009.492

7. Santos, F.L., Esteves, S.S., da Costa Pereira, A., Yancy, W.S., Nunes, J.P. (2012). Systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials of the effects of low carbohydrate diets on cardiovascular risk factors. Obesity Reviews, 13 (11): 1048-1066. Doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2012.01021.x.

8. Volek, J.S., Phinney, S.D., Forsythe, C.E., Quann, E.E., Wood, R.J., Puglisi, M.J., Kraemer, W.J., Bibus, D.M., Fernandez, M.L., Feinman, R.D. (2009). Carbohydrate restriction has a more favorable impact on the metabolic syndrome than a low fat diet. Lipids, 44 (4): 297-309. Doi: 10.1007/s11745-3274-2

9. Westman, E.C., Yancy, W.S., Edman, J.S., Tomlin, K.F., Perkins, C.E. (2002). Effect of 6-month adherence to a very low carbohydrate diet program. American Journal of Medicine, 113 (1): 30-36.


Further studies on air pollution causing diabetes

Wei Y, Zhang JJ, Li Z et al. FASEB J. 2016 30:2115-2122

Chen Z, Salam MT, Toledo-Corrall C, et al, Diabetes Care 2016 39:547-554

Wolf K, Popp A, Schneider A et al. Diabetes 2016 65:3314-3326

Sun Q, Yue P, Deiuliis JA et al. Circulation 2009 119: 538-546

Brook RD, Xu X, Bard RL et al. Sci Total Environ. 2013 448; 66-71

Alderete TL, Habre R, Toledro-Corral CM, et al. Diabetes 2017 66:1789-1796

Rajagopalan S and Brook RD. Diabetes 2012 61:3037-3045

Yang BY, Qian ZM, Li S et al. Lancet Planet Health 2018 2:e64-e73


Studies on correcting high cholesterol

1. Dashti, H.M., Mathew, T.C., Hussein, T., Asfar, S.K., Behbahani, A., Khoursheed, M.A., Al-Sayer, H.M., Bo-Abbas, Y.Y., Al-Zaid, N.S. (2004). Long-term effects of a ketogenic diet in obese patients. Experimental & Clinical Cardiology, 9 (3): 200-205.

2. Forsythe, C.E., Phinney, S.D., Feinman, R.D. Volk, B.M., Freidenreich, D., Quann, E., Ballard, K., Puglisi, M.J., Maresh, C.M., Kraemer, W.J., Bibus, D.M., Fernandez, M.L., Volek, J.S. (2010). Limited effect of dietary saturated fat on plasma saturated fat in the context of a low carbohydrate diet. Lipids, 45 (10):947-962. Doi: 10.1007/s11745-010-3467-3

3. Harcombe, Z., Baker, J.S., Cooper, S.M., Davies, B., Sculthorpe, N., DiNicolantonio, J.J., Grace, F. (2015). Evidence from randomised controlled trials did not support the introduction of dietary fat guidelines in 1977 and 1983: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Open Heart, 2 (1). Doi: 10.1136/openhrt-2014-00019.

4. Seshadri, P., Iqbal, N., Stern, L., Williams, M., Chicano, K.L., Daily, D.A., McGrory, J., Gracely, E.J., Rader, D.J., Samaha, F.F. (2004). A randomized study comparing the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet and a conventional diet on lipoprotein subfractions and C-reactive protein levels in patients with severe obesity. The American Journal of Medicine, 117 (6): 398-405.

5. Volek, J.S., Sharman, M.J., Gómez, A.L., Scheett, T.P., Kraemer, W.J. (2003). An isoenergetic very low carbohydrate diet improves serum HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, the total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio and postprandial pipemic responses compared with a low fat diet in normal weight, normolipidemic women. The Journal of Nutrition, 133 (9): 2756-2761

6. Yancy, W.S., Olsen, M.K., Guyton, J.R., Bakst, R.P., Westman, E.C. (2004). A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-fat diet to treat obesity and hyperlipidemia: a randomized, controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine,140 (10): 769-777


Further reading

1. Fung, J. (2016). The Obesity Code: Unlocking the Secrets of Weight Loss.

2. Fung, J. & Moore, J. (2016). The Complete Guide to Fasting: Heal Your Body Through Intermittent, Alternate-Day, and Extended Fasting.

3. Harcombe, Z. (2010). The Obesity Epidemic: What caused it? How can we stop it?

4. Kraft, J. (2008). Diabetes Epidemic & You

5. Noakes, T. (2018). Lore of Nutrition: Challenging conventional dietary beliefs. Cape Town, South Africa: Penguin Random House South Africa

6. Noakes, T. & Proudfoot, J. (2015). The Real Meal Revolution . London, United Kingdom: Little Brown

7. Taubes, G. (2010). Why We Get Fat. New York City, New York: Alfred A. Knopf

8. Teicholtz, N. (2014). The Big Fat Surprise: Why Butter, Meat & Cheese Belong in a Healthy Diet. New York City, New York: Simon & Schuster

9. Volek, J.S., Phinney, S.D. (2011). The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Living: An Expert Guide to Making the Life-Saving Benefits of Carbohydrate Restriction Sustainable and Enjoyable. Miami, Florida: Beyond Obesity LLC

10. Westman, E.C., Volek, J.S., Phinney, S.D. (2010). New Atkins for a New You. Touchstone